Withdrawal Agreement Bill
The inclusion of the deal in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. Stressing that the future relationship “must be based on a balance between rights and obligations and ensure a level playing field”, it invited the Commission to submit to the Council, immediately after its withdrawal, a draft comprehensive mandate for the future relationship with the United Kingdom and invited the General Affairs Council to swiftly adopt the relevant decisions and negotiating mandate. It welcomed the Commission`s decision to reappoint Michel Barnier as Chief Negotiator for the negotiations on the future relationship. The European Commission will present its draft comprehensive negotiating mandate to the Council very soon after the UK`s withdrawal, meaning that the EU and the UK will have less than eleven months at most to conclude a negotiation that would normally take several years under the agreements negotiated by the EU with Canada and Japan. It took Canada and the EU more than five years to negotiate their Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, and nearly five years for Japan and the EU to negotiate their Economic Partnership Agreement – and as complicated as they have been, they are far less complicated than the partnership outlined in the Political Declaration. The ban on extending the transition period means that it is highly unlikely that the UK and the EU will achieve the “ambitious, broad, deep and flexible partnership in the field of trade and economic cooperation” provided for in the Political Declaration, and are likely to reach a free trade agreement limited at best, limited to trade in goods but not services. despite the fact that services account for 80% of the UK economy and 40% of its exports to the EU. The ban also means there is a real possibility that the UK will cross the cliff of a no-deal exit on December 31 at 11pm .m .m. The most important elements of the draft agreement are: The Withdrawal Agreement also contains provisions allowing the United Kingdom to leave the Convention establishing the Statute for the European Schools, with the United Kingdom being bound by the Convention and the accompanying rules relating to accredited European Schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period. i.e. the end of the spring semester 2020-2021.
 On December 20, 2019, following the Conservatives` victory in the 2019 British general election, the House of Commons passed second reading of the Withdrawal Agreement Act by a majority of 358 to 234. Following amendments proposed by the House of Lords and ping-pong between the two houses, the bill received Royal Assent on January 23, 2020, allowing ratification on the British side.  After Prime Minister Boris Johnson and the Conservatives won 365 of the 650 seats in the House of Commons in the December 12 election, it was obvious that the House of Representatives would quickly approve the Withdrawal Agreement, and in fact, it did so by giving the bill its first reading on December 19, immediately after the debate on the Queen`s Speech, which opened the new parliament. and approved it at second reading on 20 December by 358 votes to 234. On 9 January, it received its third and final reading, passed by 330 votes to 231 and submitted to the House of Lords. After the Withdrawal Agreement comfortably passed its second reading by 358 votes to 234, it is on track to complete its adoption by both Houses of Parliament in time to allow Brexit at the end of January. In a wave of legislative activity this week, the British House of Lords on Monday and Tuesday approved five amendments to the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act passed by the House of Commons on January 9; On Wednesday, the House of Commons rejected the five amendments and sent the bill back to the House of Lords; And yesterday, instead of engaging in parliamentary ping-pong by approving one or more of the amendments a second time, the House of Lords approved and approved the original bill without a vote. Soon after, the bill received royal approval and became the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020.
As regards the Irish border issue, a Northern Ireland Protocol (the “backstop”) annexed to the Agreement sets out a fallback position that will only enter into force if effective alternative arrangements cannot be demonstrated before the end of the transition period. If this happens, the UK will follow the EU`s common external tariff, and Northern Ireland will retain some aspects of the single market until such a demonstration is achieved. .